Gum Inflammation: Causes and Treatment. Author: Serhiy Helya
22 June 2020
This article is available for reading in Russian and Ukrainian
Periodontium is a complex of tissues which surrounds each tooth. It consists of ligaments, gums, tooth cement, periodontium and alveolaris processus. Its main role is to fix and hold the tooth in the bone hole. In addition, it provides blood supply due to a large number of blood and lymph vessels, contains many nerve receptors, allows to evenly distribute mastication load throughout the dentition and protects against infections.
Periodontists are involved in the diagnosis, treatment and prevention of periodontal diseases, among which the most common inflammatory diseases are periodontitis, as well as dystrophic processes (parodontosis).
The development of chronic inflammation is accompanied by destruction of the alveolar tissues, which can lead to tooth loss. According to statistics, periodontitis is most often diagnosed in pregnant women and patients with diabetes mellitus.
The severity of periodontitis is determined by:
- - the depth of periodontal pocket,
- - the degree of bone loss,
- - tooth mobility.
There are several stages of the disease, and the consequences are not limited to the oral cavity. There may be disorders in the digestive system; immunity is reduced, cardiovascular diseases occur, and the psychoemotional sphere suffers.
The main symptoms of periodontitis: bleeding, bad breath, increased tooth mobility, gum inflammation, its low level and lengthening of the cervical margin of tooth which entails aesthetic problems.
The main reason for the development of inflammatory processes is poor hygiene and the accumulation of pathogens on the subgingival surface of the tooth root. The breeding ground for them is food debris. During the bacterial breakdown which forms the biofilm, a large number of toxins are released, which triggers immune reactions and destroys periodontium. Therefore, the main tactics to prevent periodontitis and the first stage of therapy is professional hygiene. Treatment should be initiated as early as possible, and its main goal is to remove dental deposits, bacteria, pathogens from the surface and restore the gingival attachment.
Treatment of periodontal diseases
The modern treatment of periodontitis and parodontosis at the initial stage involves the refusal of surgical intervention in favour of conservative methods to clean the gingival pockets using ultrasound and other equipment techniques.
Vector therapy is the most gentle method based on the effect of ultrasound and a special calcium hydroxyapatite suspension, which increases the efficacy of root cleaning, and the periodontal pocket is intensively treated and washed.
Vector tooth cleaning, as the first stage of treatment, allows to get rid of subgingival and supragingival dental deposits, cope with soft tissue inflammation and polish the root surface.
Our clinic uses an advanced Vector system (Vector apparatus manufactured by Dürr Dental, Germany).
Curettage of paradontal pockets is done to remove tooth tartar, plaque and pathologically changes soft tissues under the gums, which are impossible to remove during cleaning.
Smoothening of the surfaces of tooth roots helps fortify the gums to surfaces and reduces the depths of pockets.
Even if you brush your teeth in the morning and evening plaque forms on them, which can only be removed with the help of professional cleaning with special solutions. It is important to remember that every 6 months hygienic cleaning of your teeth must be repeated.
Professional dental care makes it possible to cope with tasks that are unsolvable at home. Even when there are no noticeable deposits of dental calculus, persistent plaque and pigmentation impossible to remove with a toothbrush and dental floss may develop on enamel and cervical line. Sometimes such build-ups are hard to notice on your own, but they are known to harm the enamel and periodontium.
Ultrasonic teeth cleaning is used to remove caked plaque (dental calculus), as well as a prepping procedure for other professional dental procedures. An ultrasonic wave makes it possible to remove all caked deposits quickly, without injuries to the gums and enamel, which sometimes cannot be achieved with the help of mechanical or dry cleaning.
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